The Luanhe River Basin covers an area of approximately 45,000km2 in the northeast of the North China Plain (see Fig. 1). The basin is located across three provinces: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hebei province and Liaoning province and contains three main types of landforms: plateau, mountain, and plain. The basin is an important water supply source for Tianjin city, a large metropolis with a population of over 15 million people. It has a temperate semi-arid continental monsoon climate, with average annual precipitation of between 400 – 700mm per year (depending on location), most of which occurs from June to September each year.